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About GMOs

monarch-400x271

It’s not clear if Bt Corn harms butterflies in the wild.

A couple of weeks ago there was an article in the Duluth paper (“Other Voices”) written by a sophomore from UMD.  His name was Tyler Ebert and the article was about genetically modified crops (GMOs).  I was heartened that the paper chose to print the opinions of a young student.  But I was a little dismayed that he chose to use as his references only USA Today and some internet advocacy sites – particularly in the light of the fine library which Kathryn Martin worked so hard to provide to UMD.  Had he looked deeper into the issues in modern agriculture, Tyler might have realized that the story is not so simple as he imagines.  Following, there are a few specific examples of what could have been found about the assertions he made.

CornBorerDmage

European Corn Borer damage to corn ear.

From Tyler’s Article: “For centuries, genetically modified organisms have helped put a dent in world hunger….”  I’m going to assume that what he means by that sentence is that breeding has been controlled by farmers and botanists since the beginnings of agriculture.  And of course that is true – but hybridization is not genetic modification.  Genetic engineering is the introduction of foreign DNA into a germ cell.  That DNA can come from anywhere and can be placed anywhere.
The biggest difference between breeding and recombinant DNA technology (within the resulting organism) has to do with gene expression.  In an organism produced by natural selection, breeding, or even hybridization, gene expression remains as it was with the parents – a leaf is just a leaf, a flower is just a flower and so forth.  In a GMO organism, the introduced genes are expressed in every cell.  So, for example, in the commonly used Bt Corn plant, every cell of the plant contains the insecticidal protein made by the plant from the DNA harvested from the bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis and placed into the corn seedThe European corn borer, the target species, only eats the kernels – never the other parts of the plants.  But in the meantime, the corn root system below ground is interacting with the subsoil ecosystem and introducing Bt protein and DNA into it.  There is no way to know what the results of this interaction will be.  There are simply too many variables and it has never been studied.

Soy beans growing

Soy beans growing

“Genetically modified organisms are safe to eat.”
There has never been any controversy about this.  Our bodies digest can digest protein from anywhere (with a few exceptions).  No one disputes this.

“With FDA-backed GMOs, world hunger can be managed more efficiently, food can be of better quality, agricultural diversity can climb, and the herbicide industry can continue to be supported.”
There just is no real evidence that anything in that sentence is true.  Genetic engineering and other agricultural technologies have simply not been able to keep up with world population.  Plant (and animal) diversity has been reduced by monoculture.  And since the patent expired on Roundup, profits for Monsanto have fallen.

Monsanto

Monsanto

But none of the above questions get to the real issue, which is: can this stuff really help us?  The jury is still out.  Here are the major issues:

  1. Resistance – of all the transgenic crops planted worldwide last year, 80% were engineered to be glyphosate resistant. Glyphosate is the active ingredient in Roundup.  “Introduced commercially by Monsanto  in 1974, glyphosate kills weeds by blocking proteins essential to plant growth.  It is now used in more than 160 countries, with more than 1.4 billion pounds applied per year.”  (NatGeo)  Roundup is used to kill weeds and therefore reduce the amount of tillage needed.  (As an aside, glyphosate is generally considered to be harmless to humans but there is controversy about some of Roundup’s other ingredients, specifically surfactants.)  Because of the large amount of overall use of glyphosate, weeds all over the world, but particularly in the US, are becoming resistant to it.
    Roundup packaged for home use

    Roundup packaged for home use

    There is nothing visible on the horizon to replace it.

  2. Food Security – the real threat to food security now facing us is unrelated to the topic of GMO or non-GMO. It is global climate change.  What food we will be able to grow and where we will be able to grow it is not going to remain the same in the future.  Big adaptations will need to be made.  All of the things that farmers have always had to worry about like: Is it going to rain?  Is it going to freeze?  Will there be bees?  Will I be able to get the harvest done in time?  All of those questions will still be there and the predictability of the answers will be less than it is now.  Overlooked in the current debates about GMOs and about climate change is the basic situation of the state of our knowledge: How much do we really know?  Well, we really do know that CO2 levels are rising and that temperatures are rising.  We really do know that herbicide resistance is rising.  But real experimentation is missing about the risks and the benefits of GMOs.

    Glyphosate spray being applied to crop

    Glyphosate spray being applied to a crop

  3. Follow the money – The reason (more or less) why there is not much experimentation of what the real consequences of GMOs might be is that there is no money in that kind of research. In the same way that drug companies pay for only certain kinds of medical research, chemical companies will pay for only the kinds of botanical, biochemical and environmental research that they believe will benefit them.  Moreover, that kind of research, where one (or a small number of) biochemical pathway(s) is/are elucidated, is easier to control so it is easier to do.  Out in nature, where these things from the laboratory end up, the complexity of ecological systems generates great experimental difficulties.  Nature has her ways and we do not know most of them.
  4. Is chemistry better? – Well, maybe not. Experiments at the Rodale Institute and elsewhere have shown that yields from conventional farming and organic farming are the same.  Moreover, organic farming reduces the use of fossil fuels and greatly increases organic matter in the soil.

So where does that leave us?  Well, there is hardly anyone in this discussion who doesn’t have a dog in the fight.  So it is very difficult to tease out what the real facts are.  I’m going to list below the articles that I read prior to writing this.  But I urge anyone interested to spend some time in the library.  Because information on the internet can be pretty marginal.  Nevertheless, my article is the unscary version of this story.  If you want to see the scarier version, take a look at the NatGeo website.

References:

Changing Genes to Feed the World
David Pimentel
SCIENCE VOL 306 29 OCTOBER 2004

A Growing Threat Down on the Farm
ROBERT F. SERVICE
SCIENCE VOL 316 25 MAY 2007

Amid Europe’s Food Fights, EFSA
Keeps Its Eyes on the Evidence
KAI KUPFERSCHMIDT
SCIENCE VOL 338 30 NOVEMBER 2012

Predictions of Biodiversity
Response to Genetically Modified Herbicide-Tolerant Crops
R. Watkinson, R. P. Freckleton,1† R. A. Robinson, J. Sutherland
1 SEPTEMBER 2000 VOL 289 SCIENCE

The Ecological Risks and Benefits of Genetically Engineered Plants
L. Wolfenbarger1* and P. R. Phifer
SCIENCE VOL 290 15 DECEMBER 2000

 

Garden Dreams January 2016

by Rita Bergstedt, Head Chester Gardens Gardener

I don’t know who wrote these words so I don’t know who to credit, but when I saw them I knew it
was the total and complete truth. “Anyone who thinks gardening begins in the spring and ends in the fall is missing the best part of the year … for gardening begins in January with the dream.”
For several weeks, starting the end of December, the seed catalogs start arriving, and the
dreaming begins. Sitting down with the catalogs in front of the fire with a cup of coffee (or wine,
even)… is a most wonderful, soulful winter activity.  My musings recently brought me back to the fall of 2013 when I first put pencil to paper and drew up the plan of raised beds for the newly built gardens that would grace the beautiful new building at 1831 E. 8th St, bordering 19th Ave. East.  Carla Blumberg’s dream to have a garden that would supply vegetables to At Sara’s Table Chester Creek Cafe was close to fruition. We leveled the lower level, put down landscape fabric, then built 10 large raised beds, mulched the walkways and filled the beds with compost literally moments before the first early snow. I was satisfied that we would be ready to begin early plantings the next spring while building the upper level beds by late spring 2014.
By mid- July of 2014 the gardens were in full glory with many varieties of lettuce and kale,
beautiful celeriac, stocky leeks, brussel sprouts, tomatillos, Italian green beans, and every color
beet you could imagine.IMG_6422That first year’s garden was a tremendous success, with the able assistance of Abby DeVita a garden rock star who then came back for 2015, assisted by Jessica Volk. The cafe kitchen was inundated both years with produce that was actually hard to keep up with! Succession planting was the norm, with several beds actually producing 3 different crops in one year.

Part of 2016 dreaming includes how to extend the season and perhaps have winter crops that are covered with mini-hoop houses or straw. Last fall we planted one bed very very late in the season of spinach, and after germination and a week’s growth we covered it with straw. I’m so excited to see the results when we remove that straw, hopefully early April. It is a cold-hardy crop that I’m hoping by first of May we will have our first crop to harvest! Stay tuned and I’ll show you pictures!
As you may have noticed, we have a wonderful greenhouse to start our seedlings, plus we plant basil directly into large pots and grow it in the greenhouse. Our first harvest begins in the latter part of June (right there in the greenhouse) and as a bed becomes available, we give those plants a jolt of new life by transplanting them outside. More basil seeds are then germinating because you can NEVER EVER have enough basil. On the east side of the Cafe’s parking lot, we have yet another raised bed garden. We call it the“Parking Lot Garden”, and have grown all sorts of herbs as well as climbing Italian green beans forming 8 ft. high towers of green. Next year we’ll do those gorgeous beans in the main gardens they didn’t quite get enough sun to produce in the shaded Parking Lot Garden, yet the pyramids of beans were spectacular looking. Keep your eyes open to giant teepees in Chester Gardens. The beans are huge, luscious flat green beans that are tender tender tender! and delicious.

3up
Another thing I want to plant are Peruvian Blue Potatoes. I’ve grown them in my home garden
for 2 years and find them the most amazing, stunning, tasty and nutritious potato ever. So next
late summer, watch for them to appear as part of the menu, or as specials. My goal is to grow vegetables that are deeply colored (more beautiful, more nutritious)!  The past two seasons have produced some absolutely gorgeous greens and I’ll be dreaming of more.

3Up2
If you’d like to talk garden talk, or have some ideas, don’t hesitate to send me an email.
Rita Bergstedt

Stay tuned… and happy time dreaming!

Rita B
P.S. Abby DeVita’s blog of the 2014 garden is a treat to check out!

About Fish – December 30, 2015

This past year has seen a big decline in the availability of locally harvested wild fish.  For the past several years we have been using Red Lake Band walleye and Lake Superior whitefish as the “seafood” staples in our menu.  The Red Lake fishery is run by the band and collects, cleans and sells walleye caught by band members in the tribal portion of Red Lake (see map).

RedLakeWhen we first started buying fish from the band it shipped directly from them, but in recent years we have had to purchase it indirectly from a food service distributor.  Lake Superior whitefish is bought from commercial fishermen in Minnesota and Wisconsin.  In the past, we bought our whitefish from Lake Superior Fish in Superior, WI.  But, more recently, probably due to the growing popularity of the “buy local” movement, that source has dried up.  We have switched to Bodin Fisheries in Bayfield, WI. However, at this time we are not able to get either wild walleye or whitefish.  It is not completely clear exactly what all the issues are with the fish supply.  But we can look at some local history and biology to learn a few things.

In 1998 MPR reported that:
The problems at Red Lake started decades ago. The federal government opened commercial fishing in 1918 to provide food for Minnesotans during World War I. The harvest was increased during World War II, and the regulations put in place then have not changed in 55 years. Federal regulations set a maximum walleye harvest and ostensibly controlled the commercial fishing, but for decades there was little or no oversight. It was just ten years ago that the Red Lake tribe started a fish biology department. The tribe manages 85 percent of the lake; the state of Minnesota oversees the remaining 15 percent that’s outside reservation boundaries. Minnesota DNR regional fisheries manager Bob Strand says Red Lake is in critical condition.
In the late 1980s commercial fishing took nearly one million pounds of walleye a year from Red Lake – that was the legal harvest. Some contend another one million pounds were taken illegally.
Any member of the Red Lake band was free to do subsistence netting – catching fish to feed their family. Many used the freedom as it was intended, but some subsistence netters took thousands of pounds of walleye to sell on the black market. Tribal and state officials are circumspect about placing blame, but commercial fisherman and Red Lake tribal member Bill May says greed led to a declaration of war on walleye.

Red Lake, at 260,000 acres, is Minnesota’s largest inland lake and consists of two basins. In 1999, the Red Lake Band and the DNR reached an historic recovery agreement which outlawed netting of any kind in Red Lake and controlled walleye fishing in both the reservation and public portions of the lake.  Additionally, both the band and the state DNR began stocking programs.  The harvest resumed in 2006 and the band and the DNR co-operate to monitor harvest levels.  Fishing this year has been OK but right now the ice is too thin to get the gear out on the ice.  In the public portion of the lake, the limit is three walleye, only one of which can be longer than 17”.

Out in Lake Superior the story is a little different.  Fishing nets are allowed.

Net Design

Net Design

Until about 1890 whitefish were the mainstay of the Lake Superior commercial fisherman, but in the three decades that followed they became virtually extinct in many areas. Great Lakes Fishing was not regulated until a law was passed in Michigan in 1929.  Prior to that it was literally catch as catch can.

From Zenith City:
Herring fishing reached its peak in the early 1890s, providing 78 percent of herring caught in the United States. In 1897 Sam Johnson, a Swedish immigrant who learned to fish on the Baltic, founded ZCA_IND_SamJohnson_001_DPLSam Johnson & Sons Fisheries Inc. (See photo) directly across the street from Booth Fisheries. Other Duluth fisheries active at the time included H. Christianson & Sons, Hogstad Fisheries, Scandia Fish Company, Bray Fish Company, Goldish Fisheries, A. Kemp Fisheries, and Sivertson Brothers….  The industry reached its peak in 1915 with a record catch of 20 million pounds in Duluth alone. In the 1920s, more than two hundred fisherman operated between Beaver Bay and the Pigeon River. But the 1930s were a different story. The lake’s catch dwindled to below 8 million pounds. The industry never quite recovered. Predatory lamprey eels and over-harvesting nearly wiped out the trout in the 1950s. Today the Lake Superior fishing industry is all but a memory; the annual harvest is less than two thousand pounds….  In 1940 the Sivertsons purchased the Hogstad Fisheries, which had purchased A. Booth in 1928. In the 1960s it began operating as the Lake Superior Fish Company, which it had acquired with its purchase of Goldish Fisheries. The company still operates today, and two of Sivertson’s grandchildren and their families remain involved. A. Kemp Fisheries, established in Duluth in 1930 by Aron and Abe Kemp, still operates. In the 1970s the company became Louis Kemp’s, named for its owner (a childhood friend of Bob Dylan, who also managed Dylan’s 1976 “Rolling Thunder” tour), who developed a process for making surimi, artificial crab meat made of pollock and whitefish. Today, Louis Kemp’s is a subsidiary of Trident Seafoods Corporation of Seattle, selling its Crab Delight throughout the world.fishingboat_62555_7

Nowadays, the Lake Superior fishery is highly studied and regulated.  Of all the Great Lakes, Superior is the most pristine and the fish have the lowest levels of toxic contaminants.
Historically, Superior has produced far fewer fish than Lake Michigan.

From the Minnesota Sea Grant website:
Therein lies the difference between Lakes Michigan and Superior. During the course of the incredible changes in species composition that took place after the 1940s, Lake Michigan ended up with a prolific forage fish that supported an enormous trout and salmon stocking program, while Lake Superior ended up with only a fraction of the forage base that it had prior to the sea lamprey invasion.
In addition, Lake Michigan annually receives 42,000 more tons of nitrogen and 2,250 more tons of phosphorous than Lake Superior. The larger nutrient loading into the smaller Lake Michigan may make it more productive than it was in the past….
Because Lake Superior has more natural reproduction of lake trout than other Great Lakes, it may be better off in the long run. Native lake trout became extinct in Lake Michigan, but remnant populations in Lake Superior survived the lampreys’ onslaught. Today Lake Superior has many areas with natural reproduction and significant numbers of native lake trout (identified by their lack of clipped fins). The Lake Michigan trout and salmon fishery remains almost totally dependent on stocking. The collapse of the salmon fishery in some areas of Lake Michigan and the recent major losses of hatchery production in Michigan and Wisconsin from a new virus suggest that there are risks in relying so heavily on stocking to support a fishery.
The biggest biological threat to Lake Superior’s recovery may continue to be exotic species….
Three new exotic species from Europe may also threaten the Lake’s recovery. The ruffe, a small perch; the spiny water flea or B.c., a large predatory zooplankton; and the zebra mussel, a small biofouling clam have all developed reproducing populations in the Lake Superior basin. Of the three new exotics, spiny water flea populations have developed most extensively in the lake and may be capable of inflicting the greatest ecological changes in Lake Superior, but only time will tell.

LakeSUperiorFoodWeb
The actual reason why demand has so far exceeded supply in the last two years is not completely clear.  The winters of 2013-14 and 2014-15 were both unusually cold.  (Remember the “polar vortex”?)  And there is not nearly so much nitrogen, nor phosphorous, dissolved in Superior as in the other great lakes.

I sent an email to Dr. Robert Sterner at UMD’s Large Lakes Observatory asking this question and here is what he said:
We measured primary productivity in the offshore of Lake Superior many times in bottles that were suspended at given depth for an entire daylight period.  We measured the rate that carbon was incorporated into organisms.  This rate generally can depend on a handful of things: the biomass of photosynthetic organisms, the temperature, light and nutrients, as well potentially as the kind of organisms present.  However, when we looked at our data we found that far and away the one factor that we could use to predict the rate of photosynthesis in our 1-day incubations was light.  We didn’t even need to include the biomass of the organisms in order to do a good job predicting the rate of primary productivity.  Part of the reason why is that without light no photosynthesis can take place, so the other factors don’t matter.
However, this does not mean the nutrients (or other factors) can be ignored.  One reason biomass or phosphorus might have had minor relevance in our study was that both of these were basically low and fairly uniform everywhere we looked.  If we do the thought experiment of polluting Lake Superior with tons of phosphorus (an awful thought indeed), greening it up, we’d then be measuring higher primary productivity everywhere in the lake.
I haven’t read too much this year about the low fish abundances but I have heard that some of the species are at low abundance, affecting commercial harvests.  I think some fisheries biologists are thinking about what effect the two recent very cold winters had.  In addition, we have evidence from my lab that algal abundance is in a state of decline in the lake, meaning probably less food for fish to eat and thus fewer fish.  We are far from having a smoking gun to prove all that, but that’s why we need more research into how the Lake Superior ecosystem works.

I also heard from Dr. Liz Minor about the same topic:
Sterner’s work shows that light is the major variable in primary production (algae growth).  This has to do with how deeply light can penetrate (it is absorbed by water itself, sediments, and colored dissolved organic matter, as well as the algae themselves).  The other factor in light limitation is the depth of the surface mixed layer, which is determined by the temperature structure in the lake water column. In the summer the lake has a warm surface layer that is less dense than the deep layer and the floating algae get trapped in the surface layer.  This is good for them because it keeps them near the light. In the spring and fall the lake surface water is cool and when it reaches 4 degrees c (the temperature when water is most dense) the whole water column mixes.  This is bad for floating algae because they get mixed deeper than the light can penetrate.
N and P can act as limiters in lake systems too, if enough light is available. There are times of the year and places in Lake Superior where P seems limiting, because its main source is run off from the land and the lake has a pretty small watershed for its size.

More Science articles can be found here.LevelTemperatureHarvestLevelTemperatureHarvest

So where does that leave us as a restaurant?  One place is to look towards farm fishing.  UMD has set up an experimental fish farm in Silver Bay producing leafy vegetables and Tilapia (see photos).  They sent us some samples but at this time we are not able to deal with whole unscaled tilapia.  Recently I saw an advertisement for a farm in Iowa.  A couple of brothers have converted a hog farm into a production facility for barramundi, which is a sea bass like fish native to Australia.  This fish is available to us through the food service already skinned and filleted – so it is easy to manage.  We are going to begin experimenting with it this week.  We’re hopeful.  Fish is a very important part of modern diets and is less damaging to the environment than other meats.  What you eat is more important than where it is from.

We continue to try to manage bringing our customers what they want in terms of variety and quality while at the same time informing our purchasing decisions with as much knowledge as possible.  As always, your input is welcomed.

Barrimundi

Barrimundi